The fabrication of functional tissues is essential for clinical applications such as disease treatment and drug discovery. Recent studies have revealed that the mechanical environments of tissues, determined by geometric cell patterns, material composition, or mechanical properties, play critical roles in ensuring proper tissue function. Here, we propose an acoustophoretic technique using surface acoustic waves to fabricate therapeutic vascular tissue containing a three-dimensional collateral distribution of vessels. Co-aligned human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human adipose stem cells that are arranged in a biodegradable catechol-conjugated hyaluronic acid hydrogel exhibit enhanced cell-cell contacts, gene expression, and secretion of angiogenic and anti-inflammatory paracrine factors. The therapeutic effects of the fabricated vessel constructs are demonstrated in experiments using an ischemia mouse model by exhibiting the remarkable recovery of damaged tissue. Our study can be referenced to fabricate various types of artificial tissues that mimic the original functions as well as structures.