PepX is a X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase of S15 family that cleaves dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptides having a proline or alanine residue at the second position. Involved in bacterial nutrition and in peptide maturation, this serine exopeptidase, counterpart of the mammalian DDP-4, has been proposed to play a role in pathogenicity for Streptococci and to be a promising target against trypanosomes. Searching for specific inhibitors, we undertook docking simulations on the whole surface of PepX from Lactococcus lactis, type example of the S15 family, which revealed a new putative binding site in connection with the active site and involving the C-terminal domain. Accordingly to the results of the computations, we synthesized two peptidomimetics of low molecular weight: the valinephenylpiperazine and the valine-isopropylpiperazine that can accommodate to this putative binding site. Experiments revealed that the valine-phenylpiperazine was an uncompetitive inhibitor whereas the valine-isopropylpiperazine showed to be an activator of the enzyme activity. The valine-phenylpiperazine is interacting with ASN 379, GLU 383, GLU 474, residues in connection with the specificity and active sites, and with the residues from the C-terminal domain LEU 693, GLU 710 and GLN 712. These results point out a role of the C-terminal domain in controlling access to the active site of enzymes of the S15 family, like PepX, the cocaine esterase or the alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase, and could have applications in human health giving new perspectives to struggle against streptococci or trypanosomes by designing inhibitors specific to the S15 family of enzymes.